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Peptide Therapy

Peptides are natural substances created by the human body that are made up of amino acids that have been linked together. Many peptides have be researched, developed, and even approved by the FDA to treat certain medical conditions. For the purposes of drug oversight, the FDA considers a composition of 40 or more amino acids to be a peptide. Black Tie Health™ offers different peptide treatments depending on the medical needs of the patient.


We provide peptide-based treatment options for people looking to heal faster, lose weight, improve their skin's appearance, enhance sexual performance, and improve their overall health.

Our prescription peptide therapy options provide patients with a physician-supervised way to explore unique treatments options.

Peptides in a lab
Peptide Therapy

How Peptides Work

Peptides vary in how they work in the human body. For example, many peptides function as hormones in the body. Peptide hormones will typically stimulate cells in the same way a hormone would. Other peptides may act only within the nervous system and are referred to as neuropeptides. There are also peptides that are connected to fat molecules called lipopeptides.

There are a number of natural peptides in the human body that provide various functions. Recent developments in medical research within the last few decades have laid the foundations for cutting-edge treatment options for various diseases. Peptides have been found to regulate tons of bodily functions including appetite, skin appearance, and sexual function, among others.


Conditions Treated with Peptides


The condition treated with peptide therapy depends on the peptide, the application, and how the medication is taken. Peptides are a type of molecule used to treat many different conditions, such as:

In essence, peptides can be considered a type of treatment with many different variations. One of the purported benefit of peptides is that they are structurally similar, or even identical, to the peptides already produced by the human body. 

Peptide Examples

Below are some examples of peptides that could potentially be or have been used to treat certain diseases or illnesses. Some of these peptides are approved as drugs by the FDA, while other peptides continue to be researched as potential new treatments for a variety of diseases and conditions.


GHK-Cu is a copper peptide that is naturally occurring in the human body.  It is also known a copper tripeptide and is a common ingredient in many cosmetic and skin care products. It is present in human plasma, saliva, and urine. GHK-Cu is well known for its aesthetic properties. It has been found to stimulate the production of collagen, function as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, and promote the growth of blood vessels, and promote the growth of nerves.

The levels of GHK-Cu in the body decrease as we age. When young, the average person has twice as much of the peptide as when they are older. The average 20 year old averages around 200ng/mL of GHK, while the average 60 year old is estimated to have around 80ng/mL of GHK - a 60% reduction over 40 years! Likewise, the ability of the skin to heal in response to injury goes down as we age.

Research suggests that GHK-Cu functions as a signaling molecule that becomes active in response to injury.  When a part of the body is injured, GHK-Cu signals a process called tissue remodeling - the removal of scar tissue and damaged cells, then replacing those cells with new, healthy cells. Ultimately the GHK peptide is believed to be the regulator of skins ability to breakdown proteins, including collagen. That suggests that GHK-Cu could be used to support skin regeneration and improve the overall appearance of skin.

A paper published in the 1980's explained the mechanism of GHK-Cu in keeping skin healthy. According to the researchers, the GHK portion of the peptide is naturally a part of the collagen molecule. When the skin becomes damages, the GHK portion of the protein breaks off and is released in the local area. The GHK then provides a signal for fibroblasts, a type of cell that produces new collagen. The fibroblasts also produce growth factors, substances that are essential in the process of skin healing.


One study from 2007 examined the effect of GHK-Cu and red-light therapy (low-level laser therapy) on skin repair and healing.  When fibroblasts were treated with the copper peptide and red-light therapy, there was a 12-fold increase in viable cells. There was also a 2x increase in the production of a growth factor that stimulates fibroblasts - basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Lastly, there was a 70% increase in the production of collagen by these cells.

There is also evidence to suggest that GHK-Cu may be able to improve the healing of nerves and blood vessels. Two different studies found that GHK-Cu appears to cause an increase in the production of chemicals know as neurotrophic factors. These neurotrophic factors help to promote the regeneration of nerves in the skin in response to injury. Another study determined that GHK-Cu was able to increase the production of NT-3, NT-4, and nerve growth factor - this increase caused the regeneration of nerves at a faster rate. The ability of GHK-Cu to improve the healing of nerves suggests that it may be a potential treatment for peripheral neuropathy, including diabetic neuropathy.

GHK-Cu Sequence




Also known as bremelanotide, PT-141 is a synthetic peptide hormone that it used to promote sex drive. It was approved by the FDA under the brand name Vyleesi for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Off-label, PT-141 may be used in men to treat erectile dysfunction or low libido.  


In men, PT-141 was found to be 80% effective in treating erectile dysfunction in those who did not respond well to drugs like Viagra (sildenafil) or Cialis (tadalafil). The way PT-141 works is different than these other medications. The PT-141 peptide is thought to work at the level of the central nervous system (the brain) in an area called the hypothalamus.

The most common side effect of PT-141 is nausea. To prevent nausea when taking the peptide medication, patients may also be prescribed a medication such as Zofran (ondansetron). The nausea caused by PT-141 is a result of how the medication effects the gastrointestinal system. The effects on the GI tract also make the medication potentially useful as a weight loss aid.

Another common side effect of PT-141 is darker skin complexion. This side effect was actually desired in the earliest relatives of this peptide (Melanotan, among others) when it was used as a sunless tanning agent.

PT-141 is typically administered as an injection under the skin.

PT-141 Sequence


Peptide Therapy PT-141


Wether you're looking for an alternative to conventional medicine or just want something that works, we've got you covered.


Pentadecapeptide, BPC-157, has been shown to accelerate healing and decrease pain. The peptide is part of a specific protein that was found to be naturally occurring in the digestive juices of the stomach; the peptide is known as body protection compound (BPC).

In experiments, BPC-157 has been show to enhance the healing of wounds in different parts of the body, such as skin, the cornea of the eye, muscle tendons, ligaments, bone, and stomach ulcers. It has been found to decrease pain in people suffering from muscle tears and muscle sprains. It is thought that BPC-157 is able to accelerate the healing rate of skin by increasing the blood supply to the area that has been injured. BPC-157 is currently undergoing clinical trials as a medication used to treat inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

A retrospective study published in 2021 in Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine reported the possible ability of BPC-157 to relieve knee pain. The interesting part of this study is that there was no separation of patients by underlying cause of knee pain. In the study, 11 of the 12 patients that had intra-articular injections of BPC-157 reported significant improvement in knee pain. The highlights the possibility of BPC-157 to be a treatment for knee pain in the future.

BPC-157 has also been though to be linked with nitric oxide (NO) production in the human body. Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator and is the target of many drugs for erectile dysfunction in men. It is possible that BPC-157 may be considered in a treatment regimen for ED. BPC-157 has also been considered a possible treatment for viral infections, such as COVID-19. While there are no clinical trials indicating the effectiveness of BPC-157 for erectile dysfunction or COVID-19, its interesting to see the wide range of potential application of this natural molecule.

BPC-157 is typically administered either as an injectable solution or as an oral capsule. 

BPC-157 Sequence



AOD 9604

AOD 9604 (Advanced Obesity Drug) is a peptide derivative of Human Growth Hormone (HGH). AOD 9604 has been research as a drug for weight loss when researchers determined that one portion of the HGH molecule was responsible for the fat-burning properties of HGH. The section responsible for this effect on weight loss are the last 15 amino acids of the peptide chain, 177-191, which corresponds to less the 10% of the overall size of the HGH hormone.

Despite some of the regenerative properties of HGH and its FDA approval for certain conditions, HGH has become associated with a negative stigma. HGH has been implicated in its off-label use as a performance enhancing drug and has been considered a risk factor for some forms of cancer. HGH was once though to be the hopeful cure for obesity, until research indicated it had negative effects on insulin levels and glucose tolerance, cancer, diabetes, and blood pressure. As a result, HGH was considered to have too many negative effects that outweigh the potential benefits for long-term use. Therefore scientists have been trying to figure out a way to get the benefits provided by HGH without the negative risks associated with using the hormone.

The results of 6 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials were published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism in 2013 in a paper entitled "Safety and Tolerability of the Hexadecapeptide AOD9604 in Humans". The authors found that unlike HGH, AOD 9604 had no effect on insulin or blood sugar levels. The researchers also found that there were no side effects or withdrawal effects of the drug during clinical trials. The authors concluded that the safety profile of AOD9604 was equivalent to the placebo.

In February of 2007, development of AOD 9604 was halted when there was no weight loss found in a 24-week clinical trial. Since then, AOD 9604 has been considered in the treatment of other conditions such as osteoarthritis.

AOD 9604 Sequence


AOD 9604



Thymosin Beta-4

Thymosin is a peptide hormone that is naturally secreted by the human thymus gland. The thymus is an important organ involved in the immune system. It is located in the center of the chest, between the lungs and in front of the heart. There are important white blood cells involved in the immune response, called T cells. After being produced in the bone marrow, T cells migrate to the thymus where they mature.

Thymosin hormone stimulates the production of T cells. Thymosin beta-4, technically a growth factor, is a peptide hormone that is 43 amino acids in length. Thymosin beta-4 is thought to play a vital role in wound healing and regeneration of damaged tissues. 

One of the ways that thymosin beta-4 is thought to improve healing in the body is through a process called angiogenesis. Angiogenesis refers to the creation of new blood vessels, which is an essential component of wound healing. Several studies have determined that thymosin beta-4 increases the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The production of new blood vessels allows new cells and tissues to grow by providing the area with oxygen and nutrients.

A study published in Cardiovascular Therapeautics in 2022 evaluated the role of thymosin beta-4 in protecting the heart during heart attacks. The researchers concluded that thymosin beta-4 worked by reducing inflammation and reducing damage to the heart tissue. They indicated that "Exogenous supplementation of Tβ4 might be a promising therapeutic agent for treating myocardial infarction as well as cardiac fibrosis". 

Thymosin beta-4 has also been studied as a potential treatment for corneal injury, liver injury, chronic wound care, inflammation, colon cancer, ulcerative colitis, and even hair loss.

Thymosin beta-4 is typically administered as a daily subcutaneous injection.

Thymosin Beta 4 Sequence


Thymosin Beta-4


Deek SA. BPC 157 as Potential Treatment for COVID-19. Med Hypotheses. 2021 Nov 9;158:110736. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110736. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34798584; PMCID: PMC8575535.


Xing Y, Ye Y, Zuo H, Li Y. Progress on the Function and Application of Thymosin β4. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2021 Dec 21;12:767785. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.767785. PMID: 34992578; PMCID: PMC8724243.


Lee E, Padgett B. Intra-Articular Injection of BPC 157 for Multiple Types of Knee Pain. Altern Ther Health Med. 2021 Jul;27(4):8-13. PMID: 34324435.

Huang PJ, Huang YC, Su MF, Yang TY, Huang JR, Jiang CP. In vitro observations on the influence of copper peptide aids for the LED photoirradiation of fibroblast collagen synthesis. Photomed Laser Surg. 2007 Jun;25(3):183-90. doi: 10.1089/pho.2007.2062. PMID: 17603859.

Maquart, François-Xavier, Pickart, Loren, Laurent, Maryvonne, Gillery, Philippe, Monboisse, Jean-Claude and Borel, Jacques-Paul(1988), Stimulation of collagen synthesis in fibroblast cultures by the tripeptide-copper complex glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine-Cu2+ , FEBS Letters, 238, doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(88)80509-X

STIER, H., VOS, E., KENLEY, D.. Safety and Tolerability of the Hexadecapeptide AOD9604 in Humans. Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, North America, 3, apr. 2013. 

Valentino MA, Lin JE, Waldman SA. Central and peripheral molecular targets for antiobesity pharmacotherapy. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2010 Jun;87(6):652-62. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2010.57. Epub 2010 May 5. PMID: 20445536; PMCID: PMC3136748.


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